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Saturday, December 23, 2017

Merry Christmas in European Languages (Map)

«Merry Christmas»
European Languages
The following map shows how to say (or rather write) the equivalent of “Merry Christmas” in European languages. 
The coloring corresponds to etymological relations between the translations of the word Christmas (i.e. not to language families and not to relations between other parts of the phrase).
This leads to a few unexpected results. Even though Romanian and Hungarian are completely unrelated languages, the words karácsony and Crăciun come from a common root (either Proto-Slavic *korčiti or Latin creātiōnem).
The Irish, Welsh and Scottish Gaelic words are all borrowed from Romance languages and are related to French Noël. The same holds true for the Turkish expression, which is directly borrowed from French.
Something quite unusual happens in Czech and Slovak. The word Vánoce resp. Vianoce is derived from German Weihnachten by retaining the “Weih” part (which comes from an old Germanic expression meaning “holy”) and replacing nachten (“nights”) by the Czech/Slovak translation, “noce”. However, the word “noce” itself comes from the same Proto-Indo-European root as German “Nachten” (and English “nights”), so the Czech/Slovak and German expressions are essentially etymologically equivalent.

Here are the same phrases as above as a text so that you can copy-paste them:

Albanian: Gëzuar Krishtlindjet Latvian: Priecīgus Ziemassvētkus
Basque: Eguberri on Lithuanian: Linksmų Kalėdų
Belarusian: з Калядамі or з Божым Нараджэннем Luxembourgish: Schéine Chrëschtdag
Breton: Nedeleg laouen Macedonian: Среќен Божиќ or Христос се роди
Bulgarian: Весела Коледа or Честито Рождество Христово Maltese: il-Milied it-Tajjeb
Catalan: Bon Nadal Norwegian: God jul
Croatian: Sretan Božić Northern Sami: Buorre juovla
Czech: Veselé Vánoce Romanian: Crăciun fericit
Danish God jul or Glædelig jul Occitan: Bon Nadal
Dutch: Vrolijk Kerstfeest Polish: Wesołych Świąt (Bożego Narodzenia)
English: Merry Christmas or Happy Christmas Portuguese: Feliz Natal
Estonian: Häid jõule Russian: с Рождеством (Христовым)
French: Joyeux Noël Scottish Gaelic: Nollaig Chridheil
Finnish: Hyvää joulua Serbian: Srećan Božić or Hristos se rodi
Galician: Bo Nadal Sardinian: Bona Pasca de Nadale
German: Fröhliche Weihnachten or Frohe Weihnachten Slovak: Veselé Vianoce
Greek: Καλά Χριστούγεννα Slovene: Vesel božič
Hungarian: Boldog karácsonyt Spanish: Feliz Navidad
Icelandic: Gleðileg jól Swedish: God jul
Irish: Nollaig Shona + Dhuit (singular) or Daoibh (plural) Ukrainian: з Різдвом (Христовим)
Italian: Buon Natale Welsh: Nadolig Llawen

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